By Mendel Cooper

This rfile is either an instructional and a reference on shell scripting with Bash. It assumes no prior wisdom of scripting or programming, yet progresses speedily towards an intermediate/advanced point of guideline. The workouts and heavily-commented examples invite lively reader participation. nonetheless, it's a paintings in development. The purpose is so as to add a lot supplementary fabric in destiny updates to this rfile, because it evolves right into a complete booklet that fits or surpasses any of the shell scripting manuals in print.

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Bash permits integer operations and comparisons on variables #+ whose value consists of all−integer characters. # Caution advised. 3. =" work. echo exit 0 Example 7−5. sh: Testing null strings and unquoted strings, # but not strings and sealing wax, not to mention cabbages and kings... # Using if [ ... ] # If a string has not been initialized, it has no defined value. # This state is called "null" (not the same as zero). if [ −n $string1 ] # $string1 has not been declared or initialized. " fi # Wrong result.

2. Numerical Constants A shell script interprets a number as decimal (base 10), unless that number has a special prefix or notation. A number preceded by a 0 is octal (base 8). A number preceded by 0x is hexadecimal (base 16). A number with an embedded # is evaluated as BASE#NUMBER (this option is of limited usefulness because of range restrictions). Example 8−3. sh: Representation of numbers. # Decimal let "d = 32" echo "d = $d" # Nothing out of the ordinary here. # Octal: numbers preceded by '0' (zero) let "o = 071" echo "o = $o" # Expresses result in decimal.

Exit 0 # Also, thank you, Florian Wisser, for the "heads−up". Example 7−6. /bin/bash #View gzipped files with 'most' NOARGS=65 NOTFOUND=66 NOTGZIP=67 if [ $# −eq 0 ] # same effect as: if [ −z "$1" ] # $1 can exist, but be empty: zmost "" arg2 arg3 then echo "Usage: `basename $0` filename" >&2 # Error message to stderr. exit $NOARGS # Returns 65 as exit status of script (error code). fi filename=$1 if [ ! −f "$filename" ] # Quoting $filename allows for possible spaces. " >&2 # Error message to stderr.

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Advanced bash-scripting guide by Mendel Cooper

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