By G.A. Somorjai, M.A. van Hove
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Extra info for Adsorbed Monolayers on Solid Surfaces
Heavier-atom surfaces can also be analyzed in the form of thin films of mono-atomic thickness on a lighter substrate, as has recently been done lSd). 4 FIM (Field Ion Microscopy) In Field Ion Microscopy 16), a hemispherical sample tip is imaged by allowing a gas (usually helium, but also hydrogen, neon and others) to ionize at the surface of the tip under the influence of a strong applied electric field, which also projects the ions onto a screen that can be photographed. The ionization probability depends strongly on the local field variations induced by the atomic structure of the surface: protruding atoms generate appreciably stronger ionization than atoms embedded in close-packed atomic planes and so produce individual bright spots on the screen.
The electron beam source commonly used has a coherence width of about 100 A. This means that sharp diffraction features are obtained only if the regions of wellordered atoms ("domains") are of (100 A) 2 or larger. Diffraction from smaller size domains gives rise to beam broadening and finally to the disappearance of detectable diffraction from a disordered (liquid-like) surface. One may distinguish between "two-dimensional" LEED and "three-dimensional" LEED. In two-dimensional LEED one observes only the shape of the diffraction pattern (as seen and easily photographed on a fluorescent screen).
However, grazing angles of incidence put stronger requirements on the largescale planarity of the surface than the roughly perpendicular incidence directions used in LEED. The multiple scattering present in LEED is also present at the higher energies: corresponding dynamical theories have been developed, 14b,c) but there is a lack of accurate experimental data to interpret. In many studies the chemisorption and the surface reaction is just the first step in a series of solid state reactions that take place as atoms from the surface move into the bulk.
Adsorbed Monolayers on Solid Surfaces by G.A. Somorjai, M.A. van Hove
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